Chongqing History

Chongqing is one of the four municipalities directly under the central government at southwest of China. Chongqing is an ancient cultural city with a history of 3,000 years. It is the cradle of the Ba culture, and has been as the capital of a country for 3 times. It was used named Jiangzhou, Bajun, Chuzhou, Yuzhou and Gongzhou.
 
 
Early History
Dating back two million years ago, early Paleolithic Age, in today’s Wushan County, Chongqing Municipality, China's first human – Wushan People had appeared.
200,000 – 300,000 years before, at the late Paleolithic age, there had appeared "Tongliang Culture."
 
Before Qing Dynasty
During Xia and Shang Dynasties, the Three Gorges region was the main producing areas of rock salt. Because salt was one of the important ancient hard currency, which emerged the early Ba People Culture.
 
During the North and South Dynasties, Ba Jun was named Chuzhou.
 
In 581, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty named it Yuzhou, which was the origin of its short name Yu.
 
In 1189, Emperor Guang of Song Dynasty was confer titles of Gong King, and then enthroned, which was called two good things, so he renamed Gongzhou as Chognqing. Chongqing got its name 800 years before.
 
In 1357, Ming Yuzhen conquered Chongqing. In 1363, he claimed to be a king of Xia Dynasty, and Chongqing was the capital. In 1391, the Xia Dynasty last for 9 years and exterminated buy Ming Dynasty.
 
Qing Dynasty
On Sep. 13, Britain forced Qing Government to signed the Chefoo Convention. Britain could send consul to Chongqing.
On March 31, 1890, Chongqing became the treaty port.
1890, British set consulate in Chongqing.
On March 1, 1891, Chongqing Customs were set near by Chaotianmen.
In 1895, according to Treaty of Shimonoseki, Chongqing opened as treaty port of Japan.
In 1896, France set Consulate General in Chongqing.
In 1896, Japan set Consulate General in Chongqing.
In 1896, USA set Consulate General in Chongqing.
In 1902, Russia established Russian Mansion.
In 1904, German set Consulate in Chongqing.
 
Modern and Contemporary
1911, the Railway Project Crisis shocked the world.
On November 20, 1937, the ROC government issued the "Declaration on the Nationalist government moved to Chongqing," and on December 1st, the office officially set in Chongqing, Chongqing became the capital of the Republic of China during the war.
On September 6, 1940, the National Government clearly stipulated the provisional capital of Chongqing as the capital of Republic of China.
 
In 1929, Chognqing formally established the city and the first mayor was Pan Wenhua.
 
1949, Chongqing was liberated by the Chinese People's Liberation Army
 
1064-1996, incorporated into Sichuan.
 
1997, recovered as the municipality directly under the central government.

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