Top 5 Great Ancient Capitals of China
- State of Yan (Yen in WG) in Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 BC): called Ji
- Liao Dynasty (907-1125), as a secondary capital: called Yanjing
- Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) from Emperor Shizong until 1215: called Zhongdu
- Yuan Dynasty (1271 to 1368): called Dadu in Chinese, Daidu (a direct transliteration from Chinese) in Mongolian and Khanbaliq in the Turkic languages. This was reported as "Cambuluc" by Marco Polo.
- Ming Dynasty from the time of the Ming Yongle Emperor (r. 1402/1424) until 1644 called Jīngshī.
- Qing Dynasty from the fall of the Ming in 1644 to the end of the dynasty in 1912.
- The Beiyang Government of the Republic of China.
- The current capital of the People's Republic of China.
- all of the Six Dynasties: called Jianye (建業 Jiànyè) or Jiankang (建康 Jiànkāng). The Six Dynasties are:
- Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms
- Eastern Jin Dynasty
- Liu Song Dynasty
- Southern Qi Dynasty
- Liang Dynasty
- Chen Dynasty
- Ming Dynasty before Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing.
- Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace and Prosperity) during the Taiping Rebellion. Known as Tianjing (天京，literally 'Heavenly Capital') between 1853 and its fall in 1864
- Republic of China after the Northern Expedition until the Japanese invasion in 1937 of WWII, and after the war until Chiang Kai-Shek retreated to Taiwan in 1949.
- Wang Jingwei's pro-Japanese collaborationist government.
- Eastern Zhou Dynasty
- Eastern Han Dynasty from 25 to 220
- Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms.
- Western Jin Dynasty
- Northern Wei Dynasty since 493, moved its capital from Datong.
- Later Tang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
- Later Liang Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
- Later Jin Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
- Later Han Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
- Later Zhou Dynasty during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
- Northern Song Dynasty: called Dongjing (東京 Dōngjīng)
- Western Zhou Dynasty, also see Fenghao.
- State of Qin in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Qin Dynasty 221 BC-207 BC: Xi'an is located near the former Qin capital Xianyang.
- Western Han Dynasty from 206 BC to AD 9
- Xin Dynasty from 8 to 23
- Eastern Han Dynasty
- Western Jin Dynasty
- State of Former Zhao, a state in the Sixteen Kingdoms period during the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
- State of Former Qin from 351 to 394, during the Sixteen Kingdoms period.
- State of Later Qin from 384 to 417, during the Sixteen Kingdoms period.
- Western Wei Dynasty
- Northern Zhou Dynasty
- Sui Dynasty from 581 to 618
- Tang Dynasty from 618 to 907
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