Lugu Lake is located between Ninglang County in Yunnan Province and Yanyuan County in Sichuan Province, about 300km away from Lijiang. It is a plateau lake with a total area of 52 square kilometers, 2,685 meters above the sea level. The average depth is 45m, and the deepest point being 93m. The lake remains an uncontaminated plateau lake with the crystal-clear water.
Lugu Lake is embraced in green mountains. The best-loved one by the Mosuo people is the Holy Gemu Mountain (the Lion Mountain). The local people worship it as their Goddess Gemu. On 25th July of each lunar year, they will gather at the foot of the mountain for a great sacrificial rite.
Among the five islands in the lake, three are in the territory of Yunnan and two in that of Sichuan. Heiwawudao, Ligedao are metaphorically called Three Islands of Ponglai (means Islands of the Immortals in Chinese). Sitting in the middle of the lake, Heiwawudao Island is also called the Chieftain Island because Ashaoyun, the chieftain of Yongning, built his villa on the island in the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty. Rock, an American scientist, also used to reside on this island. On the south side of the lake stand Liwubidao Island lies at the foot of the Lion Mountain. It is actually a small peninsular formed by the extension of the Lion Mountain into the Lake. A dozen of Mosuo families live on this island so it is possible for the visitors to experience the life on the island and, at the same time, enjoy the beautiful scenery of the lake.
Many cultural sites and scenic spots are scattered along the lakeside. They are Mosuo villages, plateau hot springs, the underground maze- Lucky Cave, the Chieftain's Palace, Zhamei Lama Temple, Riyuehe - The Ruins of the Yuan Army Quarters when Kublai Khan was on his south expansion and Yongning - the key town on the Ancient Tea-horse Road.
The pretty and graceful Mosuo girls, the ancient and natural canoes and the pleasant fishing songs are considered to be the three most enjoyable things on the lake.
The Mosuos, a branch of the Naxi ethnic group with a population of about 15,000, are the main ethnic group scattered in the lakeside villages. The Mosuo women wear long hair tied into a bun and red, green and black garments and white folding skirts with colorful sashes tied round their waists. Before 13 years old, they usually wear long gowns. After the initiation ceremony at the age of 13, men wear trousers and women wear skirts.
【Mosuo Male-Leaving Marriage】
The strangest and most freedom marriage form in the world is walking marriage. When Mosuo girls become adults (12 years old) will be held a grand wearing-skirt ceremony, since then she can chose Mr.Right by herself and others (including parents) can not interfere. Instead, womenfolk take a series of lovers throughout their lives, and the children of these "walking marriages" remain in their mothers' homes under a matriarch's supervision.
The Mosuo people have their own ways and customs, and still retain some remnants of the matriarchal society. Men and women are not bound by marriage, each living at one's mother's home. Men work at home during the day and spend their night with the women they loved in theiv homes. Children are under the care of and supported by their maternal families. Fathers do not live in the same family with their children and women so that they are not bound up with their women financially in their production and life. This unique wedlock values affection and gives more freedom to men and women in their relationships. They may choose to unite or separate at will. It has been considered as the living fossil as a basis for a study of social patterns and matriarchal marriage customs in today’s world.
Mosuo’s marriage was called the "Axia Marriage". Mosuo people in Male-Leaving Marriage called their lovers Axia. Mosuo young men and women fell in love with each other would give each other love tokens. The man usually gives the woman gold and silver jewelry, jade bracelet, beads, silk thread, etc. The love token of the return by woman is usually carry-on items that man loved. After giving each other a love token, the man’s elders went on pipa meat (meat pickled in traditional method in Zhongdian Yunnan), tea, sugar, liquor and other gifts to visit the elders of woman, with the agreement by elders, they establish Axia relationship. Later, men and women both parties are still live in their own home, the man will help the family of woman forwardly.
Zhucao boat is a kind of strange shape canoe, the traditional means of transportation of Mosuo people, especially as the helper of Axia walking marriages.
Guozhuang Party is a tradition of Lugu Lake entertainment project, is a good time for Mosuo women to choose their lover. Men and women join hands in a circle, in the middle there is lit bonfires and they dance. The girls are well-dressed, all accessories are put in their body and wrap black cloth in their heads, wear a white pleated skirts, sing love songs, then serve a bowl of liquor "Sulima" and ask lover publicly pledged loyalty.
The wrestling competition only ever held in the Mosuo traditional festival, when is a good time for Mosuo boy to show their heroic. Now, like the Guozhuang Party, it is geared to the needs of visitors daily activities and to change in form that Mosuo boys fight alone with male tourists or with a number of female tourists. Tourists do not have to worry about his own safety, because although Mosuo boys intrepid, but he knows hospitality that they will make visitors to enjoy and won’t hurt them.
Torch Festvial is a traditional festival that many nationalities like in Ninglang area, Yi nationality folk regard Torch Festival as a very grand traditional festival, and in Yi language it was called “Sheze”.
The Mosuo wooden houses are built with square-deged timber in the style of 'jinganshi building’ also called Mulengfang (Timber House). The Naxi villages look graceful and unaffected. The Zhuanshan Festival (the Festival of Turning-around the Mountain) which falls on 25th July of the lunar year is the traditional festival of the Mosuo people. On that day they would dress in their Sunday best to worship the Gemu Goddess Mountain (the Lion Mountain) and pray for the Goddess' protection. It is also a time for horse racing, wrestling and antiphonal sining. The young people take the chance to search for their lovers, whom they call A xia.
Pumi nationality is one of the indigenous peoples in Lijiang Ninglang County. Wuxi Festival is a ceremonious traditional festival of Pumi nationality. The meaning of "wu" is the year, "xi" means new, so "wuxi" is the meaning of "New Year". Wuxi Festival generally held in the seventh or eighth in the first lunar month. As a rule, Wuxi Festival should be 9 days. Now most of the Pumi nationality region still attaches great importance to this holiday, part of the Pumi nationality area celebrate New Year's Eve in the lunar calendar as the Han nationality.
Zhuanhai Festival called “thanks” in the Mosuo language, which means that go around their mother lake and "thank deity of Mother Lake". Every new year’s day, fifteen in the first lunar month, or fifth and twenty-fifth in the first lunar month, boys and girls, young and old in the village will come to Lugu Lake. Every one or two li (equals to 500 meters) in the lake regions has fixed place for burning incense and sacrifice. People will stop to every fixed place to burn incense and kowtow, at the same time also worship the god of mountains.