Referred as the “Father of the Nation”, Sun Yat-sen(12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader.
♦ Contribution of Sun Yat-sen
Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912 and later co-founded the Kuomintang (KMT) where he served as its first leader. Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and remains unique among 20th century Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan Strait.
Although Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution, he quickly fell out of power in the newly founded Republic of China, and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split into two factions after his death. Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood
♦ The Leader of 1911 revolution
To sponsor more uprisings, Sun made a personal plea for financial aid at the Penang conference held on 13 November 1910 in Malaya. The leaders launched a major drive for donations across the Malay Peninsula. They raised HK$187,000.
On 27 April 1911 revolutionary Huang Xing led a second Guangzhou uprising known as the Yellow Flower Mound revolt against the Qing. The revolt failed and ended in disaster; only the bodies of 72 revolutionaries were found. The revolutionaries are remembered as martyrs.
On 10 October 1911 a military uprising at Wuchang took place led again by Huang Xing. At the time Sun had no direct involvement as he was still in exile. Huang was in charge of the revolution that ended over 2000 years of imperial rule in China. When Sun learned of the successful rebellion against the Qing emperor from press reports, he immediately returned to China from the United States accompanied by General Homer Lea on 21 December 1911. The uprising expanded to the Xinhai Revolution also known as the "Chinese Revolution" to overthrow the last Emperor Puyi. After this event 10 October became known as the commemoration of Double Ten Day.
♦ Sun Yat-sen Memorial Halls and Museum in China
► In most major Chinese cities one of the main streets is named Zhongshan Lu (中山路) to celebrate his memory. There are also numerous parks, schools, and geographical features named after him.
► Xiangshan, Sun's hometown in Guangdong, was renamed Zhongshan in his honor
► There is a hall dedicated to his memory at the Temple of Azure Clouds in Beijing.
► Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou
► National Sun Yat-sen University in Kaohsiung
► Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Sun Yat-sen subway station, Sun Yat-sen house in Nanjing,
► Dr. Sun Yat-sen Museum in Hong Kong
► Chung-Shan Building in the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall in Taipei
► Zhongshan Memorial Middle School has also been a name used by many schools
► Zhongshan Park is also a common name used for a number of places named after him.
► The first highway in Taiwan is called the Sun Yat-sen expressway.